Chronology of Milestone Events in Particle Physics - HEISENBERG 1927
Chronology of Milestone Events in Particle Physics


Heisenberg, W.;
Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik / The Actual Content of Quantum Theoretical Kinematics and Mechanics
Z. Phys. 43 (1927) 172;

Reprinted in
W. Heisenberg, Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works, Ed. by W. Blum, H. P. Durr, and H. Richenberg, Springer-Verlag, Ser. A, Part I, (1985) 478.
(translation into English) The Physical Content of Quantum Kinematics and Mechanics see in: Quantum Theory of Measurement, ed. by J. A. Wheeler, W. H. Zurek, Princeton University Press, N.J. (1983) 62.
Dokumente der Naturwissenschaft 4 (1963) 9.

First we define the terms velocity, energy, etc. (for example, for an electron) which remain valid in quantum mechanics. It is shown that canonically conjugate quantities can be determined simultaneously only with a characteristic indeterminacy (S 1). This indeterminacy is the real basis for the occurrence of statistical relations in quantum mechanics. Its mathematical formulation is given by the Dirac-Jordan theory (S 2). Starting from the basic principles thus obtained, we show how microscopic processes can be understood by way of quantum mechanics (S 3). To illustrate the theory, a few special gedanken experiments are discussed (S 4).

Related references
More (earlier) information appears in
M. Born, W. Heisenberg, and P. Jordan, Z. Phys. 35 (1926) 557;
See also
P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. A112 (1926) 661;
P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. A113 (1926) 621;
P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. A114 (1927) 243;
A. Einstein, Sitzber. Pr. Akad. Wiss. 23 (1925) 3;
W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 40 (1926) 501;
W. Pauli, Z. Phys. 41 (1927) 81;
P. Jordan, Z. Phys. 37 (1926) 376;
P. Jordan, Z. Phys. 40 (1926) 661;
P. Jordan, Z. Phys. 40 (1926) 809;
P. Jordan, Naturw. 15 (1927) 105;
M. Born, Z. Phys. 38 (1926) 803;
M. Born, Z. Phys. 40 (1926) 167;
M. Born, Naturw. 15 (1927) 238;
E. Schrödinger, Naturw. 14 (1926) 664;
P. Ehrenfest and G. Breit, Z. Phys. 9 (1922) 207;
P. Ehrenfest and R. C. Tolman, Phys. Rev. 24 (1924) 287;
N. Bohr, Z. Phys. 13 (1923) 117;

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Heisenberg discovery of the uncertainty principle.
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