Chronology of Milestone Events in Particle Physics

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1890
PERRIN 1895  Observation that cathode rays are the flow of negatively charged particles.
RÖNTGEN 1895  Discovery of the X rays.
BECQUEREL 1896B  Evidence for spontaneous radioactivity effect.
BECQUEREL 1896C  Confirmation of the effect of spontaneous radioactivity.
BECQUEREL 1896D  Confirmation of the effect of spontaneous radioactivity. Observation that uranium radiation is not identical to Röntgen X rays.
BECQUEREL 1896F  Uranium radioactivity established.
THOMSON 1897  Discovery of the electron, the first elementary particle.
RUTHERFORD 1899  Evidence for the and components of uranium radiation.
1900
VILLARD 1900  Evidence for the radioactivity.
BECQUEREL 1900  Confirmation of the radioactivity.
VILLARD 1900B  Gamma radioactivity established.
PLANCK 1900  Discovery of a new formula for the energy spectrum of the black body radiation, Planck's radiation law.
PLANCK 1900B  Quantum hypothesis and explanation of the black body radiation spectrum. Beginnings of the quantum era in physics.
PLANCK 1901  Quantum hypothesis and final version of Planck's formula for the black body radiation spectrum.
LEBEDEV 1901  First experimental evidence for pressure of the light on the solid bodies.
RUTHERFORD 1903  Observation that rays are the flow of doubly positive charged particles.
POINCARE 1905  Introduction of the relativity principle as an overall law of nature valid for all forces including the gravitational one. Formulation of the equation of the relativistic mechanics and transformation laws for electromagnetic field and current. Establishing of the Lorentz group as a symmetry group of nature. First proposal to modify Newtonian theory of gravity on the basis of the relativity principle. Prediction of the gravitational waves propagating with the speed of light.
EINSTEIN 1905  Explanation of the photoelectric effect with use of the quantum hypothesis of Planck. Light is a flow of corpuscular objects with definite energies - Planck's quanta of energy.
EINSTEIN 1905B  Invention of the theory of special relativity. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics.
EINSTEIN 1905C  Invention of the theory of special relativity, E = mc2. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics.
EINSTEIN 1906  Corpuscular-wave dualism for photons. Explanation of the photoelectric effect using the quantum hypothesis of Planck.
STARK 1909  First explicit identification of the photon as a genuine elementary particle possessing both energy and momentum.
1910
MILLIKAN 1911  First conclusive measurement of the charge of the electron.
RUTHERFORD 1911  Evidence for the atomic nucleus. Rutherford model for atomic structure.
HESS 1912  Conclusive evidence for the cosmic rays.
WILSON 1912  Invention of the cloud chamber to visualize tracks of ionizing particles.
HESS 1913  Confirmation of cosmic rays.
MILLIKAN 1913  First precise measurement of the charge of the electron and the Avogadro constant.
BOHR 1913  Invention of the quantum theory of atomic spectra based on the Rutherford model of atomic structure - Bohr's atom.
BOHR 1913B  Bohr's quantum theory of atomic spectra. Evidence that radioactivity is a nuclear property.
RUTHERFORD 1913  Confirmation of the existence of atomic nuclei. First indication of the existence of the proton.
CHADWICK 1914  The spectrum is continuous (first observation). Indirect evidence on the existence of neutral penetrating particles.
MILLIKAN 1916  First conclusive measurement of energy quantization in the photoelectric effect.
BOHR 1918  Bohr's invention of correspondence principle.
RUTHERFORD 1919  Discovery of the proton. Evidence for the proton as a constituent of the nucleus.
1920
RUTHERFORD 1920  Rutherford neutron hypothesis.
CHADWICK 1921  Evidence for the strong interactions.
COMPTON 1923  Direct experimental confirmation that the photon is an elementary particle, the Compton effect.
DE BROGLIE 1923  Suggestion of the corpuscular-wave dualism for electrons - de Broglie waves of matter particles.
DE BROGLIE 1923B  Suggestion of the corpuscular-wave dualism for electrons. Prediction of diffraction phenomena for electrons.
WILSON 1923  Experimental confirmation of the ionization process predicted by Compton for a corpuscular photon.
BOSE 1924  Discovery of new statistical counting rules for light quanta and a new derivation of Planck's radiation law. Known as Bose-Einstein quantum statistics for particles with integer spins.
EINSTEIN 1924  Extension of the Bose method to the monoatomic gases. Prediction of Bose-Einstein condensation effect.
EINSTEIN 1925  Extension of the Bose method to the monoatomic ideal gases. Prediction of Bose-Einstein condensation effect and rediscovery of the wave properties of matter particles.
PAULI 1925  Introduction of an additional two-valued degree of freedom for the atomic electron.
PAULI 1925B  Discovery of the exclusion principle - the Pauli principle.
UHLENBECK 1925  Invention of the electron spin hypothesis and the notion of an elementary spin.
HEISENBERG 1925  Foundation of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg approach.
BORN 1925  Invention of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with one degree of freedom.
BORN 1926  Development of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with arbitrary many degrees of freedom.
HESS 1926  Firm establishment of cosmic rays.
FERMI 1926  Invention of statistics for ensembles of particles obeying Pauli principle.
FERMI 1926B  Invention of statistics for ensembles of particles obeying Pauli principle - Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics.
SCHRÖDINGER 1926  Creation of wave mechanics. Invention of the Schrödinger wave equation.
SCHRÖDINGER 1926B  Wave mechanics: First applications.
SCHRÖDINGER 1926C  Equivalency of quantum mechanics of Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan and wave mechanics of Schrödinger.
SCHRÖDINGER 1926D  Wave mechanics: Perturbation theory and applications.
SCHRÖDINGER 1926E  Wave mechanics: Further development and generalization.
BORN 1926B  Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. Quantum theory of scattering. Born approximation.
BORN 1926C  Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics: Further development.
DIRAC 1926  Rediscovery of statistics for an ensemble of fermions - the Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics.
BORN 1926D  Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics: Further development.
FOCK 1926  Pusto.
DAVISSON 1927  Experimental evidence that the electron moves as a group of de Broglie waves.
DIRAC 1927  First steps in quantum field theory. Invention of the second quantization method.
DIRAC 1927B  Foundations of quantum electrodynamics - QED.
DENNISON 1927  Evidence that proton spin is equal to the electron spin.
ELLIS 1927  Confirmation that the spectrum is continuous.
ELLIS 1927B  Further confirmation that the spectrum is continuous.
HEISENBERG 1927  Heisenberg discovery of the uncertainty principle.
WIGNER 1927B  Invention of spatial parity as a quantum mechanical conserved quantity.
DAVISSON 1927B  Discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals. Confirmation of the wave properties of moving electrons.
THOMSON 1928  Confirmation of diffraction of electrons by crystals.
DIRAC 1928  Discovery of the relativistic wave equation for the electron. Prediction of the magnetic moment of the electron.
GAMOW 1928  Explanation of decay as a consequence of quantum-mechanical tunneling through a potential barrier.
DIRAC 1928B  Relativistic wave equation for the electron and theory of the Zeeman effect.
SKOBELZYN 1929  Birth of cosmic rays particle physics. Observation of energetic cosmic electrons and a shower produced by cosmic ray particle.
BOTHE 1929  Observation that the cosmic rays at sea level consist mainly of ionizing particles.
BIRGE 1929  First step in metrology of the general physical constants.
1930
DIRAC 1930  Introduction of the negative energy electron sea with holes treated as positive electrons. Attempt to identify these holes with protons.
MEITNER 1930  Firm establishment that the spectrum is continuous.
PAULI 1930  Proposal for the existence of the neutral fermion emitted in nuclear beta decay - the neutrino.
TAMM 1930  Difficulties with identifying positive holes with protons in the Dirac theory of electrons and protons. Too small a lifetime of the ordinary atom.
OPPENHEIMER 1930  First evidence of ultraviolet divergences occurring in the theory of quantum electrodynamics - the self-energy of the electron.
DIRAC 1931  Prediction of the anti-electron (e+), anti-proton (), and an indication of the possible existence of magnetic monopoles.
LAWRENCE 1931  Lawrence proposal for cyclotrons.
LAWRENCE 1931B  Tests of the first cyclotron.
VAN DE GRAAFF 1931  Invention of the Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator.
RAMAN 1932  Experimental proof that the photon has spin = 1.
ANDERSON 1932  First experimental evidence for the positron.
CHADWICK 1932  First evidence for the neutron.
CHADWICK 1932B  Discovery of the neutron.
COCKCROFT 1932  First evidence of nuclear reactions with accelerated protons. Cockcroft-Walton accelerator.
IWANENKO 1932  Suggestion that the neutron is a constituent of the atomic nucleus.
UREY 1932  Evidence for the deuteron.
FOCK 1932  Description of the space of states for quantum systems with an arbitrary (infinite) number of particles - Fock space.
HEISENBERG 1932  Suggestion that atomic nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons. Theory of nuclear exchange forces. Invention of nucleon isotopic spin.
BLACKETT 1932  Confirmation of fast penetrating charged particles in cosmic rays.
UREY 1932B  Discovery of the deuteron.
LAWRENCE 1932  Further development of cyclotrons.
WIGNER 1932  Introduction of the time inversion transformation in quantum mechanics.
VAN DE GRAAFF 1933  Invention of electrostatic accelerators. Further development.
ANDERSON 1933  Discovery of the positron, the first antiparticle, predicted by Dirac.
BLACKETT 1933  e+ and shower confirmation. First indication for e+ e pair production.
MAJORANA 1933  Further development of the theory of nuclear forces.
FRISCH 1933  First measurement of the proton magnetic moment.
ESTERMAN 1933  Further measurement of the proton magnetic moment.
CHADWICK 1934  Evidence for deuteron photodisintegration. First precise measurements of the neutron mass.
PAULI 1934  Explanation of the continuous electron energy spectrum in decay. Proposal for the neutrino.
FERMI 1934  Field theory for beta decay. First estimation of the neutrino mass.
ALTSHULER 1934  Prediction of the negative anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron.
CERENKOV 1934  First evidence for Vavilov- Cerenkov radiation.
VAVILOV 1934  First attempt to understand Vavilov- Cerenkov radiation. Evidences that it is not a luminescence.
MURPHY 1934  Evidence that the spin of the deuteron is 1.
ESTERMAN 1934  First measurements of magnetic moments of the deuteron and neutron.
YUKAWA 1935  Yukawa field theory of nuclear forces. Prediction of heavy quanta, the pion particles, as mediators of strong interactions.
BREIT 1936  Breit-Wigner form of the amplitude for resonance reactions.
GAMOW 1936  Extension of Fermi interaction and Gamow-Teller selection rules.
BREIT 1936B  Hypothesis of charge independence of nuclear forces.
CASSEN 1936  Proposal of the isotopic spin (for the nucleon).
TAMM 1937  Theoretical explanation of Cerenkov radiation phenomenon.
WIGNER 1937  Discovery of supermultiplet structure in nuclear spectroscopy.
NEDDERMEYER 1937  First evidence for the muon.
MAJORANA 1937  Symmetrical theory of electrons and positrons. Majorana neutrino theory.
STREET 1937  Confirmation of the muon existence.
BLOCH 1937  Treatment of infrared divergence.
CERENKOV 1937  Confirmation of the Frank-Tamm theory of the Vavilov- Cerenkov effect.
STREET 1937B  Muon existence confirmation.
WHEELER 1937  First proposal for the S matrix formalism.
NISHINA 1937  Confirmation of the existence of the muon.
SCHWINGER 1937  Establishment of the neutron spin 1/2.
ALVAREZ 1938  First evidence for the capture of atomic electrons by the weak interaction; K-capture.
STÜCKELBERG 1938  Invention of the baryonic quantum number conservation law.
LAWRENCE 1939  First cyclotron for medical applications.
KELLOGG 1939  High-precision measurements of proton and deuteron magnetic moments.
ROSSI 1939  First evidence of muon decay and first estimation of its lifetime.
DUNNINGTON 1939  Further development of the metrology of fundamental physics parameters.
1940
WILLIAMS 1940  First observation of muon decay.
ALVAREZ 1940  First direct measurement of the neutron magnetic moment.
PAULI 1940B  Theorem on the connection between spin and statistics.
KERST 1940  Kerst proposal for betatron accelerator.
RASETTI 1941  First measurement of the muon lifetime, preliminary result.
KERST 1941  First betatron.
RASETTI 1941B  First measurement of the muon lifetime.
ROSSI 1942  Evidence for the muon exponential decay rate.
NERESON 1942  Confirmation of the muon exponential decay rate.
FERMI 1943  First Fermi nuclear reactor. Beginning of atomic energy era.
TOMONAGA 1943  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.
HEISENBERG 1943  Invention of the S-matrix formalism.
VEKSLER 1944  Invention of the principle of phase stability for accelerators.
LEPRINCE-RINGUET 1944  First evidence for the K+.
LANDAU 1944  Landau distribution for fast particle energy loss by ionization.
IWANENKO 1944  Limitation of the maximal energy attainable in a betatron.
MCMILLAN 1945  Invention of the principle of phase stability for accelerators.
GAMOW 1946  Gamow indication on the possibility to explain the observed chemical elements abundance-curve by assumption of unequilibrium process of elements formation during a limited interval of time. Birth of the Big Bang model.
MCMILLAN 1946  Further development of the synchrotron idea.
PONTECORVO 1946  Proposal for the radiochemical method of detecting the neutrino.
CONVERSI 1947  Evidence that the muon is not a strong interaction mediator.
KOBA 1947  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.
BROBECK 1947  First cyclotron based on the phase stability principle - the Berkeley 184 inch synchrocyclotron.
PERKINS 1947  First indication of the existence of the .
OCCHIALINI 1947  Confirmation of the .
KOBA 1947B  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.
LAMB 1947  First measurements of the fine structure of the hydrogen atom, the Lamb shift.
PONTECORVO 1947  First idea about universality of the Fermi weak interactions.
BETHE 1947  First theoretical calculation of the Lamb shift in non-relativistic QED.
MARSHALL 1947  Invention of scintillation counters.
KUSCH 1947  First measurement of g-2 for the electron, preliminary result.
LATTES 1947  First indication of the existence of decay into .
LATTES 1947B  Confirmation of the . First evidence for pion decay ± ± neutrals.
ROCHESTER 1947  First evidence for V events. Confirmation of the existence of a charged unstable particle with a mass between those of the muon and proton.
HINCKS 1948  Nonexistence of e decay.
ROSE 1948  First explicit theoretical paper on the investigation of the electromagnetic structure of a nucleus by electron-nucleus scattering.
FOLEY 1948  First measurement of g-2 for the electron.
SCHWINGER 1948B  First theoretical calculation of g-2 for the electron.
SARD 1948  Nonexistence of e decay.
FEYNMAN 1948  Proposal to modify classical electrodynamics to a form suitable for quantization.
SNELL 1948  First evidence for neutron beta decay.
FEYNMAN 1948B  Creation of the covariant theory of quantum electrodynamics. Feynman method.
SCHWINGER 1948  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Schwinger method.
PICCIONI 1948  Confirmation of the nonexistence of e decay.
TATI 1948  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.
FEYNMAN 1948C  Invention of the path integral formalism for quantum mechanics.
BROWN 1949B  First evidence for three-prong kaon decay.
BURFENING 1949  First pion production reaction by accelerator.
DYSON 1949  Covariant quantum electrodynamics: Equivalence between the Tomonaga-Schwinger method and the Feynman method and generalization.
SCHWINGER 1949  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Schwinger method.
LEIGHTON 1949  Confirmation of the continuous energy distribution of the e in the decay e X. Muon spin = 1/2.
DYSON 1949B  Covariant quantum electrodynamics: Equivalence between the Tomonaga-Schwinger method and the Feynman method and generalization.
FEYNMAN 1949  Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Feynman method.
FEYNMAN 1949B  Development of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Feynman method.
MCKAY 1949  Invention of semi-conductor detectors.
FERMI 1949  First composite model of pions.
KEUFFEL 1949  Creation of the spark chamber method for particle tracking.
1950
BJORKLUND 1950  First evidence for the existence of the o.
ROBSON 1950  First observation of neutron beta decay.
WARD 1950  Ward identity in quantum electrodynamics.
SERIFF 1950  Further evidence for V events.
SNELL 1950  Confirmation of neutron beta decay.
ROBSON 1950B  Further confirmation of neutron beta decay.
REYNOLDS 1950  Invention of liquid scintillation counters.
KALLMANN 1950  Another invention of liquid scintillation counters.
STEINBERGER 1950  First evidence for the production of the o and for o decay.
CARLSON 1950  Confirmation of the existence of the o, first estimation of the o lifetime.
LIPPMANN 1950  Systematic treatment of the application of variational principles to the quantum theory of scattering. Invention of the Lippmann-Schwinger form of the Schrödinger equation.
FEYNMAN 1950  Mathematical proof of the validity of the Feynman rules for calculations of amplitudes in QED.
LORD 1950  First evidence for multiple hadron production in nucleon-nucleon interactions. First evidence for the forward jet of secondary particles in hadronic interactions.
PANOFSKY 1951  Confirmation of the o and o decay. Direct determination of the parity.
BRUECKNER 1951  Confirmation of the odd parity of the .
O’CEALLAIGH 1951  First evidence for K+ + neutral(s) decay.
FRETTER 1951  Confirmation of the existence of heavy unstable particles.
BRIDGE 1951  Further confirmation of the existence of heavy unstable particles.
DURBIN 1951C  Determination of the spin of the +.
CLARK 1951  Another determination of the spin of the +.
ARMENTEROS 1951  Evidence for the possible existence of the hyperon. First evidence for the Ko meson.
LEIGHTON 1951  Evidence for two types of neutral V particles, baryonic and mesonic.
FOWLER 1951  Confirmation of the K+.
ARMENTEROS 1951B  Evidence for the possible existence of the hyperon. First evidence for the Ko meson.
LYMAN 1951  First results from electron-nuclei scattering experiment.
SALPETER 1951  Bethe-Salpeter relativistic equation for two-body bound-state problems.
ANNIS 1952  Confirmation of the existence of heavy charged unstable particles.
HEISENBERG 1952  Prediction of rising total hadronic cross sections.
ANDERSON 1952B  First indication for the (1232 P33) resonance.
ANDERSON 1952E  Further evidence for the (1232 P33)++ resonance.
PAIS 1952  Hypothesis on associative production of V0 particles.
COURANT 1952  Invention of the strong focusing principle for accelerators.
ARMENTEROS 1952  First evidence for the hyperon.
BONETTI 1953  First evidence for the charged hyperon.
BONETTI 1953B  Confirmation of the existence of + and hyperons.
YORK 1953  Direct experimental evidence for the +.
THOMPSON 1953  First evidence for K decay.
THOMPSON 1953B  First measurement of the Ko mass.
FOWLER 1953C  First V-event production at the Cosmotron.
GLASER 1953  First evidence of charged particle tracks in a bubble chamber.
FOWLER 1953B  Confirmation of the existence of the hyperon. First evidence for associated production of heavy unstable particles.
REINES 1953B  First evidence for the e.
GELL-MANN 1953  Extension of isotopic multiplet structure for new unstable particles. Explanation of pairwise production of V particles.
KONOPINSKI 1953  Invention of the concept of lepton quantum number.
ANDERSON 1953B  Confirmation of the existence of the .
COWAN 1953  Further confirmation of the .
LINDENBAUM 1953  Confirmation of the existence of the (1232 P33) resonance.
DANYSZ 1953  First evidence for a hypernucleus.
DALITZ 1953  Invention of the Dalitz plot method to analyse spatial quantum numbers of mesons by their decays into three known particles.
STÜCKELBERG 1953  Invention of the renormalization group.
GREGORY 1954  Confirmation of the decays K± ± neutral.
FOWLER 1954C  Confirmation of the existence of the . Evidence for the associated production of strange particles.
COWAN 1954  Confirmation of cascade decay. First indication for .
DALITZ 1954  First indication on zero spin and odd parity for the K meson.
GELL-MANN 1954B  Invention and exploration of the renormalization group concept.
GELL-MANN 1954  Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.
YANG 1954  Introduction of local gauge isotopic spin invariance in quantum field theory: Yang-Mills theory.
HODSON 1954  Evidence for K+ + o decay.
LUDERS 1954  Theoretical evidence for CPT invariance in local quantum field theory.
DAVIES 1955B  First experimental evidence that neutrino is not identical with antineutrino.
GELL-MANN 1955  Prediction of the long lived kaon KL.
KARPLUS 1955  Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.
WALKER 1955D  Confirmation of associated production of strange particles. First indication of the existence of the o.
GOLDBERGER 1955  Dispersion relations for massive particles.
GOLDBERGER 1955B  Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.
BRIDGE 1955  Confirmation of the existence of the K+ and K.
ARMENTEROS 1955  Confirmation of the existence of the K+.
CHUPP 1955  First precise measurement of the K+ mass.
ALVAREZ 1955  First measurement of the K+ lifetime. First evidence for the equality of lifetimes of the and mesons.
ILOFF 1955  K+ lifetime measurements from decays in flight.
GLAUBER 1955  Invention the theory of the diffractive shadow effects in the high energy reactions with composite particles.
BIRGE 1955B  Further measurements of charged-kaon masses. Masses of the strange K+, , and mesons are equal.
CHAMBERLAIN 1955  Experimental evidence for the antiproton.
GERSHTEIN 1955  Evidence that strong interactions do not modify the vector coupling constant of beta decay. Analogy between electromagnetic and weak interactions.
SORRELS 1955  Confirmation of the associated production of strange particles.
CHINOWSKY 1955  First evidence for the odd parity of the o.
PAIS 1955  Proposal for the KL KS regeneration experiment.
LEHMANN 1955  Beginnings of the axiomatic field theory of the S-matrix.
CONVERSI 1955  Invention of flash tube chambers.
DAVIES 1955  Measurements of charged kaon decay branching fractions.
CHODOROW 1955  First GeV linear accelerator at Stanford.
NISHIJIMA 1955  Nishijima classification of strange particles with prediction of o and o hyperons.
FUNG 1956  Confirmation of the equality of the masses of K+ and + mesons.
FITCH 1956  Confirmation of the equality of the lifetimes of K+ and (K+ + o) mesons.
BRABANT 1956C  Confirmation of the existence of the antiproton.
ALVAREZ 1956  Firm establishment of the K+ lifetime value. Establishment of equality of the lifetimes of K+ (K+ + neutral), (K+ + o), and + (K+ + + ) mesons.
WIGHTMAN 1956  Wightman axiomatic field theory.
HILL 1956  First indication of annihilation of the antiproton in matter.
CHAMBERLAIN 1956E  First evidence of annihilation of the antiproton in emulsion.
CHEW 1956  Static model for the pion-nucleon interaction.
KERST 1956  First realistic proposal for probing high energies by colliding beams of particles.
MCALLISTER 1956  First measurement of the proton electromagnetic radius.
CHAMBERLAIN 1956F  Confirmation of antiproton-nucleon annihilation.
COWAN 1956  Confirmation of the detection of the e.
REINES 1956  First detection of the free neutrino.
LANDE 1956  First evidence for the KL.
FRY 1956  Confirmation of the existence of the KL.
LEE 1956  Proposals to test spatial parity conservation in weak interactions.
CORK 1956  First evidence for the antineutron.
LEE 1956B  Invention of G-parity for nonstrange mesons.
BOGOLYUBOV 1956  Development of the renormalization group method in quantum field theory.
LOGUNOV 1956  Generalization of the renormalization group equations in QED for arbitrary covariant gauge.
GELL-MANN 1956  Gell-Mann classification of strange particles with prediction of o and o.
SYMANZIK 1956  Derivation of dispersion relations in field theory for pion nucleon forward scattering amplitude.
BOGOLYUBOV 1956B  Formulation of the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach to the local quantum field theory. Derivation of dispersion relations in field theory for pion nucleon scattering amplitude, general case.
SAKATA 1956  Invention of composite model for hadrons based on three basic elements.
IOFFE 1957  Indication of the possibility of charge conjugation violation in weak interactions.
PLANO 1957  Confirmation of the existence of the o hyperon. First measurement of the o mass.
SALAM 1957  Postulation of 5 invariance for the weak interaction Lagrangian. Two-component theory of neutrino.
BARKAS 1957  Confirmation of antiproton-nucleon annihilation.
WU 1957  First evidence for parity nonconservation in weak decays.
GARWIN 1957  Confirmation of parity violation in weak decays. Evidence of charge conjugation parity violation in weak interactions. Measurement of the magnetic moment.
LEE 1957B  Two-component theory of neutrino.
FRIEDMAN 1957  Confirmation of parity nonconservation in weak decays.
LANDAU 1957  Introduction of the CP conservation law in weak interactions and CP parity.
LANDAU 1957B  Suggestion of the two-component theory for the neutrino.
LANDE 1957  Confirmation of the existence of the KL.
LEE 1957  Charge conjugation invariance violation in weak interactions.
FRAUENFELDER 1957  Further confirmation of spatial parity nonconservation in beta decays.
LOGUNOV 1957  Rigorous derivation of the dispersion relations for pion photoproduction amplitude.
PAIS 1957  Further proposals for CP invariance.
NISHIJIMA 1957  Introduction of lepton-family-number conservation.
MILEKHIN 1957  Evidence for limited transverse momenta in hadronic showers.
LEE 1957C  Further development of the idea of the intermediate vector boson in weak interactions.
GELL-MANN 1957  First review of particle properties data.
YENNIE 1957  Description of the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon by form factors.
BARKAS 1958  First collection of particle physics data in a compact and readily accessible form.
BOLDT 1958B  First measurement of the KL - KS mass difference.
PROWSE 1958  First evidence for the .
FEYNMAN 1958  CVC and symmetry between electromagnetism and weak interaction. S = Q for nonleptonic decays of the strange particles.
FAZZINI 1958  First evidence for e2 decay.
IMPEDUGLIA 1958  Confirmation of e2 decay.
GOEBEL 1958  Proposed method for extraction of - interactions.
CRAWFORD 1958  First evidence of beta decay.
NORDIN 1958  Confirmation of beta decay.
PONTECORVO 1958  Proposal for the possibility of neutrino-antineutrino oscillations.
GOLDHABER 1958C  First evidence for the negative e helicity (e is left handed).
OKUN 1958  Prediction of the existence and some properties of the and ' particles on the basis of Sakata model. Invention of the S = Q selection rule.
POMERANCHUK 1958  Theorem on asymptotic equality of hadron-hadron and antihadron-hadron interaction cross sections.
AGNEW 1958  Confirmation of the existence of the antineutron.
GOLDBERGER 1958  Goldberger-Treiman relations.
SAKURAI 1958  Universal V-A weak interactions.
EISLER 1958  Failure of universal Fermi interactions in the beta decay of hyperons.
MANDELSTAM 1958  Dispersion relation in two variables: the Mandelstam representation.
EDWARDS 1958  Evidence for limited transverse momenta in hadronic jets.
ZELDOVICH 1959  Prediction of the optical activity of atomic media due to possible weak neutral currents. Prediction of the anapole moments of nuclei, due to weak interactions.
FUKUI 1959  Principle of the spark chamber.
MINAKAWA 1959  Confirmation of the existence of hadronic jets in high energy collisions: The average PT of hadrons in jets is limited and almost independent of jet energy.
ALVAREZ 1959  First evidence for the o.
GOLDHABER 1959  First observation of an enhancement in the production of like-charge pairs of pions with similar momenta.
PLANO 1959  First direct determination of the parity of the o.
IKEDA 1959  Introduction of SU(3) symmetry for hadrons. Prediction of the existence of the meson.
LANDAU 1959  Invention of Landau singularities for perturbative amplitudes.
PONTECORVO 1959  Proposed experiments to establish distinguishability of e and . Indication on the feasibility of neutrino beams with accelerators.
CHEW 1959  Method for extraction of pion-pion interactions.
REGGE 1959  Introduction of Regge poles.
GÜRSEY 1960  Non linear sigma model.
1960
BALDIN 1960  First theoretical estimations of dipole polarizabilities of nucleons.
SCHWARTZ 1960  Confirmation of the feasibility of neutrino beams with accelerators.
FRAZER 1960  Prediction of the spin = 1, isospin = 1 resonance in the two-pion system.
BUTTON 1960  First evidence for the o.
ALSTON 1960  First evidence for the (1385 P13).
KANG-CHANG 1960  First evidence for the .
GOLDHABER 1960  Interpretation of the enhancement in the production of like charge pairs of pions with similar momenta as an influence of Bose-Einstein correlations.
REGGE 1960  Introduction of Regge poles.
GOLDANSKY 1960  First measurement of electrical polarizability of the proton.
BOWCOCK 1961  Prediction of the spin = 1, isospin = 1 resonance in the two-pion system.
GOLDSTONE 1961  Prediction of unavoidable massless bosons if global symmetry of the Lagrangian is spontaneously broken.
SALAM 1961  Invention of the gauge principle as basis to construct quantum theories of interacting fundamental fields.
BUTTON 1961  Confirmation of production.
NAMBU 1961  Nambu-Jona-Lasinio nonlinear model of hadrons.
GLASSER 1961  First conclusive measurements of the o lifetime.
FROISSART 1961  Froissart upper bound on the total cross sections of hadronic collisions.
TERNOV 1961  Prediction of the "radiation self-polarization" effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.
ALSTON 1961B  First evidence for the K*(892) resonance.
GRIBOV 1961  Generalization of Regge asymptotics for relativistic scattering amplitudes.
ALSTON 1961E  First evidence for the (1405 S01) resonance.
NE’EMAN 1961  Introduction of the SU(3) octet structure of the known mesons and baryons.
XUONG 1961C  Confirmation of the existence of the meson.
CHEW 1961  Invention of equivalence of elementary hadrons and hadronic resonances on the basis of Regge trajectories. Invention of the Chew-Frautschi plot to classify hadrons. Invention of the vacuum pomeron trajectory.
PEVSNER 1961  First evidence for the meson. Confirmation of the meson.
GLASHOW 1961  First introduction of the neutral intermediate boson.
AGS STAFF 1961  AGS (30 GeV) at BNL - the first strong focusing proton synchrotron.
DUNAITSEV 1962  First observation of the + beta decay. First direct experimental evidence for the validity of the CVC hypothesis.
TRIPP 1962  Determination of the parity.
BROWN 1962  First evidence for + pair production.
CERN 1962  Confirmation of the existence of the +.
DANBY 1962  First evidence for the . Evidence for more than one kind of neutrinos.
GELL-MANN 1962  Introduction of the SU(3) singlet-octet structure of the known mesons and octet-decuplet structure for the baryons. Prediction of the hyperon.
PJERROU 1962  First evidence for the (1530 P13) resonance.
CHRETIEN 1962  Confirmation of the existence and evidence for spin zero of the meson.
BERTANZA 1962D  Confirmation of the existence of the (1530 P13) resonance. First evidence for the resonance.
CHINOWSKY 1962  Determination of the spin of the K*(892) resonance to be 1.
FRAUTSCHI 1962  Application of Regge poles to resonances and particles.
SALAM 1962  Conditions for renormalizability of general gauge theories of massive vector mesons.
AMATI 1962  Invention of the multiperipheral model to analyze a few and many body hadronic reactions. Demonstration that multiperipheral model is capable to predict qualitatively the general features of elastic scattering, inelastic particles spectra, and topological cross sections.
GOLDSTONE 1961B  Perturbative and general proofs of the Goldstone theorem.
SCHLEIN 1963  Confirmation of the meson.
CONNOLLY 1963  Firm establishment of the meson.
CABIBBO 1963  SU(3) and hadronic weak currents. Introduction of the Cabibbo angle; predictions for the leptonic decay rates of hyperons.
DANYSZ 1963  First evidence for a double hypernucleus.
LOGUNOV 1963  Derivation of the relativistic generalization of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-body problem in quantum field theory.
SOKOLOV 1963  Further investigation of the "radiation self-polarization'' effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.
DOLGOSHEIN 1964  Invention of the streamer chamber.
CHIKOVANI 1964  Another invention of the streamer chamber.
GELL-MANN 1964  Introduction of quarks as fundamental building blocks for hadrons.
ZWEIG 1964  Introduction of aces (quarks) as fundamental building blocks for hadrons. I.
ZWEIG 1964B  Introduction of aces (quarks) as fundamental building blocks for hadrons. II.
BJORKEN 1964  Proposal for the existence of a charmed fundamental fermion.
BARNES 1964E  Confirmation of the hyperon.
KALBFLEISCH 1964  First evidence for the ' meson.
GOLDBERG 1964C  Confirmation of the ' meson.
CHRISTENSON 1964  First evidence for CP violation.
GÜRSEY 1964  Introduction of the SU(6) classification of hadrons.
ENGLERT 1964  Example of a field theory with spontaneous symmetry breakdown, no massless goldstone boson, and massive vector bosons.
HIGGS 1964B  Higgs mechanism of mass generation for vector gauge fields.
GURALNIK 1964  Example of a field theory with spontaneous symmetry breakdown, no massless goldstone boson, and massive vector bosons.
WOLFENSTEIN 1964  Invention of the superweak theory for CP-violation in weak interactions.
GREENBERG 1964  Introduction of the color quantum number, and colored quarks and gluons.
ABRAMS 1964  Confirmation of the existence of the hyperon.
SAKITA 1964  SU(6) classification of hadrons.
SALAM 1964  Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis, first estimations of the W mass. Salam-Ward version.
BOGOLYUBOV 1965  Introduction of an additional quantum number (the color) to resolve conflict with Fermi statistics. Explanation of the relations between magnetic moments of baryons.
DORFAN 1965D  First evidence of the antideuteron.
FITCH 1965B  Confirmation of KL KS regeneration phenomenon.
ABOV 1965  First evidence of the spatial-parity non-conservation in weak nuclear interactions.
KIRILLOVA 1965  Evidence for large real part of the nuclear scattering amplitude.
LOBASHOV 1966  Confirmation of the spatial parity nonconservation in weak nuclear interactions.
HIGGS 1966  Higgs mechanism of mass generation for vector gauge fields.
GERSHTEIN 1966  First cosmological upper bound on the stable neutrino masses sum.
SOLOVIEV 1966  Invention of the dispersion sum rules for hadronic binary amplitudes.
NAMBU 1966  Invention of the idea of a vector gluon theory for strong interactions.
GREENBERG 1966  Three triplet model for hadrons. Beginnings of the quantum chromodynamics - QCD.
SAKHAROV 1967  First attempt to explain baryonic asymmetry of the observable universe.
BUDKER 1967  Proposal for electron cooling of the proton and antiproton bunches in storage rings.
DORFAN 1967  First evidence for CP violation in KL ± decays.
BENNETT 1967  Evidence for CP violation in semileptonic decays of the KL.
WEINBERG 1967  Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis, first estimations of the W and Z masses.
KIBBLE 1967  Extension of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation for non-Abelian gauge field theories. Higgs-Kibble mechanism.
FADDEEV 1967  Faddeev-Popov method for construction of Feynman rules for Yang-Mills type of gauge theories.
LOGUNOV 1967  Generalization of the dispersion sum rules to non-decreasing hadronic amplitudes.
LOGUNOV 1967B  First derivation of asymptotic bounds on the behavior of the one particle inclusive differential cross sections from general principles.
SALAM 1968  Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis. Salam-Ward version.
CHARPAK 1968  Invention of multiwire proporional chambers.
ASTVACATUROV 1968  Observation of the e e+ decay.
BJORKEN 1969  Invention of Bjorken scaling behavior.
BLOOM 1969B  First evidence for Bjorken scaling behavior.
BREIDENBACH 1969  Confirmation of Bjorken scaling behavior.
FEYNMAN 1969  Proposal for scaling behavior of the inclusive spectra of produced hadrons. Birth of the partonic picture of hadron collisions. Precise formulation of exclusive and inclusive experiments dichotomy.
BUSHNIN 1969  First conclusive evidence for scale invariance in hadronic inclusive experiments.
BEZNOGIKH 1969  Experimental evidence for the increasing diffraction slope parameter.
BINON 1969  Confirmation of the antimatter production in hadron nucleus collisions.
BJORKEN 1969B  Explanation of Bjorken scaling with use of the parton model.
1970
GLASHOW 1970  Introduction of lepton-quark symmetry, proposal of a fourth (charmed) quark.
BINON 1970B  Confirmation of scale invariance phenomena in hadronic inclusive experiments.
ANTIPOV 1970  First evidence for production.
CHRISTENSON 1970  First observation of the high mass muon pairs in hadron collisions - prototype of the experiments which lead to the discovery of the J /(1S) (Ting) and (1S) (Herb) as well as "Drell-Yan'' analyses of quark structure functions.
DENISOV 1971F  First experimental indication of the rising total hadronic cross sections.
FIRESTONE 1971C  First evidence for the +.
’T HOOFT 1971  Rigorous proofs of renormalizability of the massless Yang-Mills quantum fields theory.
’T HOOFT 1971B  Rigorous proof of renormalizability of massive Yang-Mills quantum fields theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance.
GRIBOV 1972  Invention of Gribov-Lipatov evolution equations for perturbative parton distribution functions in scalar and vector theories. Scaling violation prediction.
MILLER 1972B  Firm establishment of Bjorken scaling behavior.
’T HOOFT 1972  Universal regularization and renormalization method for gauge fields theories. I.
’T HOOFT 1972B  Universal regularization and renormalization method for gauge fields theories. II.
BALDIN 1973  Evidence for cumulative effect.
KOBAYASHI 1973B  Observation that CP violation can be accommodated in the standard electroweak model only if there are at least six quark flavours.
AMALDI 1973E  Confirmation of rising total hadronic cross sections.
AMENDOLIA 1973B  Further confirmation of rising total hadronic cross sections.
GROSS 1973  Discovery of the "asymptotic freedom'' property of interacting Yang-Mills field theories.
POLITZER 1973  Discovery of the "asymptotic freedom'' property of interacting Yang-Mills field theories.
ALPER 1973G  Observation of high transverse momentum hadrons at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.
BANNER 1973B  Observation of high transverse momentum hadrons at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.
BUESSER 1973  Firm establishment of high transverse momentum hadrons effect at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.
WEINBERG 1973  Final formulation of QCD and the Standard Model Lagrangian.
FRITZSCH 1973  Invention of the QCD Lagrangian of Yang-Mills type.
GROSS 1973B  Final formulation of QCD theory.
MATVEEV 1973  Quark counting rules for asymptotic energy power low behavior of the binary hadronic amplitudes at large fixed angles.
BRODSKY 1973  Quark counting rules for asymptotic energy power low behavior of the binary hadronic amplitudes at large fixed angles.
BENVENUTI 1974F  Confirmation of the existence of weak neutral currents.
BACCI 1974  Confirmation of the existence of the J /(1S).
BUDKER 1976  Evidence for electron cooling.
SEREDNYAKOV 1976  Experimental confirmation of the "radiation self-polarization'' effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.
BLIETSCHAU 1977B  Confirmation of the existence of the weak neutral current.
BRANDELIK 1977D  First evidence for Ds+- and Ds strange charmed mesons.
ALTARELLI 1977  Invention of Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations for quark and gluon densities in colliding hadrons.
PERL 1977F  Firm establishment of the lepton properties.
INNES 1977  Evidence for the (2S) resonance.
DARDEN 1978  Another confirmation of the (1S) resonance.
DARDEN 1978B  Another confirmation of the (2S) resonance.
BARBER 1979F  First evidence for the gluon jet in e+ e 3jet annihilations.
BRANDELIK 1979H  Confirmation of the production of gluon jets.
BERGER 1979C  Another confirmation of the production of gluon jets.
BARTEL 1980D  Confirmation of gluon jets.
1980
BOHRINGER 1980B  Another confirmation of the (3S).
CALICCHIO 1980  First evidence for the c(2455)+.
ANDREWS 1980B  Evidence for the (4S).
FINOCCHIARO 1980  Another evidence for the (4S).
BEBEK 1981  First evidence for the B meson.
BASILE 1981I  First indication of the existence of the bottom baryon b.
CHADWICK 1981  Further evidence of the B-flavored meson.
BIAGI 1983C  First evidence for the c(2460)+.
BANNER 1983B  First evidence for the production of the charged intermediate bosons W+ and W.
AUBERT 1983  Evidence for difference between structure functions of bound and free nucleons - EMC effect.
ARNISON 1983D  First evidence for the neutral intermediate boson Zo.
BODEK 1983  Confirmation for difference between structure functions of bound and free nucleons - EMC effect.
ARNISON 1984C  Confirmation of W+ and W production. First observation of W± ± decays.
ARTAMONOV 1984B  Implementation of the resonance depolarization method of the beams energy calibration to the high precision measurements of heavy e+ e resonances.
ARNISON 1984G  Confirmation of Zo boson production. Observation of Zo + decay.
BIAGI 1985C  First evidence for the c.
ARNISON 1985D  Firm establishment of the properties of W+, W and Zo bosons.
ALBAJAR 1987C  First indication of Bs-s mixing.
ANSARI 1987E  Firm establishment of properties of the W+, W, and Zo bosons.
ALBRECHT 1987P  First evidence for the Bo-o mixing.
HIRATA 1987C  First observation of the neutrino burst from supernova SN1987A.
BIONTA 1987C  First observation of the neutrino burst from supernova SN1987A. Birth of neutrino astronomy.
VAN DYCK 1987  High precision measurements of electron and positron g-2 factors. High precision test of QED and CPT symmetry.
ASHMAN 1988B  Evidence for complex spin structure of the proton, "proton spin crisis''.
BAND 1988  Confirmation of Bo-o mixing.
AVERY 1989C  First evidence for the c(2460)o and c(2460)o.
ARTUSO 1989C  Confirmation of Bo-o mixing.
ABRAMS 1989B  First evidence that the number of light neutrinos = 3. MARK-II Collaboration.
1990
ADEVA 1990R  Another confirmation of Bs-s mixing.
DECAMP 1991D  Further confirmation of Bs-s mixing.
ADEVA 1991D  Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. L3 Collaboration.
ALEXANDER 1991C  Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. OPAL Collaboration.
ABREU 1991B  Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. DELPHI Collaboration.
ABE 1995  Observation of the top quark. CDF Collaboration.
ABACHI 1995G  Observation of the top quark. D0 Collaboration.



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