Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.; The Strong-Focusing Synchrotron - A New High Energy Accelerator
Phys. Rev. 88 (1952) 1190;

Reprinted in The Physical Review - the First Hundred Years, AIP Press (1995) CD-ROM.

Abstracts
Strong focusing forces result from the alternation of large positive and negative n-values in successive sectors of the magnetic guide field in a synchrotron. This sequence of alternately converging and diverging magnetic lenses of equal strength is itself converging, and leads to significant reductions in oscillation amplitude, both for radial and axial displacements. The mechanism of phase-stable synchronous acceleration still applies, with a large reduction in the amplitude of the associated
radial synchronous oscillations. To illustrate, a design is proposed for a 30 BeV proton accelerator with an orbit radius of 300 ft, and with a small magnet having an aperture of 1 x 2 inches. Tolerances on nearly all design parameters are less critical than for the equivalent uniform-n machine. A generalization of this focusing principle leads to small, efficient focusing magnets for ion and electron beams. Relations for the focal length of a double-focusing magnet are presented, from which the
design parameters for such linear systems can be determined.

Related references See also D. W. Kerst and R. Serber, Phys. Rev. 60 (1941) 53;
L. H. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 54 (1938) 588;
L. H. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 54 (1938) 580;
N. M. Blachman and E. D. Courant, Rev. Sci. Inst. 20 (1949) 596;

Record comments
Invention of the strong focusing principle for accelerators.