Chronology of Milestone Events in Particle Physics - KIBBLE 1967
Chronology of Milestone Events in Particle Physics


Kibble, T.W.B.;
Symmetry Breaking in Non-Abelian Gauge Theories
Phys. Rev. 155 (1967) 1554;

According to the Goldstone theorem, any manifestly covariant broken-symmetry theory must exhibit massless particles. However, it is known from previous work that such particles need not appear in a relativistic theory such as radiation-gauge electrodynamics, which lacks manifest covariance. Higgs has shown how the massless Goldstone particles may be eliminated from a theory with broken U(1) symmetry by coupling in the electromagnetic field. The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the analogous problem for the case of broken non-Abelian gauge symmetries. In particular, a model is exhibited which shows how the number of massless particles in a theory of this type is determined, and the possibility of having a broken non-Abelian gauge symmetry with no massless particles whatever is established. A secondary purpose is to investigate the relationship between the radiation-gauge and Lorentz-gauge formalisms. The Abelian-gauge case is reexamined, in order to show that, contrary to some previous assertions, the Lorentz-gauge formalism, property handled, is perfectly consistent, and leads to physical conclusions identical with those reached using the radiation gauge.

Related references
See also
Y. Nambu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 4 (1960) 380;
J. Garding and S. Lions, Nuovo Cim. Suppl. 14 (1959) 9;
M. Baker and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. 128 (1962) 2462;
S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. 130 (1963) 2132;
J. Goldstone, Nuovo Cim. 19 (1961) 154;
J. Goldstone, A. Salam, and S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. 127 (1962) 965;
P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 130 (1963) 439;
P. W. Higgs, Phys. Lett. 12 (1964) 132;
G. S. Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13 (1964) 585;
R. F. Streater, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15 (1965) 475;
P. W. Higgs, Phys. Rev. 145 (1966) 1156;
N. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. 140 (1965) B911;
J. Schwinger, Phys. Rev. 125 (1962) 1043;
J. Schwinger, Phys. Rev. 130 (1963) 402;
S. A. Bludman and A. Klein, Phys. Rev. 131 (1963) 2364;
Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio, Phys. Rev. 122 (1961) 345;

Record comments
Extension of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation for non-Abelian gauge field theories. Higgs-Kibble mechanism.
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