Nambu, Y.; Jona-Lasinio, G.; Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an Analogy with Superconductivity. I
Phys. Rev. 122 (1961) 345;

Reprinted in The Physical Review - the First Hundred Years, AIP Press (1995) CD-ROM.

Abstracts
It is suggested that the nucleon mass arises largely as a self-energy of some primary fermion field through the same mechanism as the appearance of energy gap in the theory of superconductivity. The idea can be put into a mathematical formulation utilizing a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation which regards real nucleons as quasi-particle excitations. We consider a simplified model of nonlinear four-fermion interaction which allows a _{5}-gauge
group. An interesting consequence of the symmetry is that there arise automatically pseudoscalar zero-mass bound states of nucleon-antinucleon pair which may be regarded as an idealized pion. In addition, massive bound states of nucleon number zero and two are predicted in a simple approximation. The theory contains two parameters which can be explicitly related to observed nucleon mass and the pion-nucleon coupling constant. Some paradoxical aspects of the theory in connection with the _{5} transformation are discussed in detail.

Related references See also J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. 106 (1957) 162;
N. N. Bogolyubov, JETP 34 (1958) 41;
N. N. Bogolyubov, JETP 34 (1958) 51;
N. N. Bogolyubov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 67 (1959) 549;
D. Pines and J. R. Schrieffer, Nuovo Cim. 10 (1958) 496;
P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 110 (1958) 827;
J. Bernstein, M. Gell-Mann, and L. Michel, Nuovo Cim. 16 (1960) 560;
P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 114 (1959) 1002;
G. Rickayzen, Phys. Rev. 115 (1959) 795;
T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang, Phys. Rev. 98 (1955) 1501;
W. Heisenberg, Zeit. Naturforschung 14 (1959) 441;
L. van Hove, Physica 18 (1952) 145;
P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 110 (1958) 1900;

Record comments
Nambu-Jona-Lasinio nonlinear model of hadrons.