Nambu, Y.; Jona-Lasinio, G.; Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an Analogy with Superconductivity. I
Phys. Rev. 122 (1961) 345;
Reprinted in The Physical Review - the First Hundred Years, AIP Press (1995) CD-ROM.
It is suggested that the nucleon mass arises largely as a self-energy of some primary fermion field through the same mechanism as the appearance of energy gap in the theory of superconductivity. The idea can be put into a mathematical formulation utilizing a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation which regards real nucleons as quasi-particle excitations. We consider a simplified model of nonlinear four-fermion interaction which allows a 5-gauge
group. An interesting consequence of the symmetry is that there arise automatically pseudoscalar zero-mass bound states of nucleon-antinucleon pair which may be regarded as an idealized pion. In addition, massive bound states of nucleon number zero and two are predicted in a simple approximation. The theory contains two parameters which can be explicitly related to observed nucleon mass and the pion-nucleon coupling constant. Some paradoxical aspects of the theory in connection with the 5 transformation are discussed in detail.
Related references See also J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. 106 (1957) 162;
N. N. Bogolyubov, JETP 34 (1958) 41;
N. N. Bogolyubov, JETP 34 (1958) 51;
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D. Pines and J. R. Schrieffer, Nuovo Cim. 10 (1958) 496;
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Nambu-Jona-Lasinio nonlinear model of hadrons.