Nobel prize to D. A. Glaser awarded in 1960 "for the invention of bubble chambers''
Glaser, D.A.; Bubble Chamber Tracks of Penetrating Cosmic Ray Particles
Phys. Rev. 91 (1953) 762;
Reprinted in The Physical Review - the First Hundred Years, AIP Press (1995) CD-ROM.
Tracks of penetrating cosmic ray particles passing through an ether-filled bubble chamber under 10 cm of lead have been recorded by flash photography triggered by a twofold vertical coincidence telescope. The bubble chamber consisted of a heavy-walled cylindrical Pyrex bulb 3 cm long and 1 cm inside diameter, which communicates with a pressure-regulating device by means of a Pyrex capillary tube 45 cm long. A thermostated temperature bath of mineral oil surrounded the bulb, maintaining the
temperature constant within 0.5°C in the range 138°C to 143°C. The pressure-regulating device consisted of a brass cylinder of length 2 cm and inside diameter 3 cm. One end of the cylinder was scaled with a flexible diaphragm of 1 / 8-in. Neoprene faced with Teflon to confine the ether and permit variation of its pressure by controlling the pressure of compressed gas on the outside of the diaphragm. To prepare for taking a picture of a track, the ether was
compressed by admitting compressed nitrogen to the pressure regulator at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch so that no vapor bubbles remained in the system. Then the gas was allowed to escape, so that the ether suddenly became highly superheated at atmospheric pressure. On the average the liquid remained quietly in this unstable condition for several seconds until a violent eruptive boiling occurred. If a coincidence of the vertical counter telescope occurred during this waiting time, a picture
was taken by means of a xenon discharge flash lamp. About 5 seconds were required to recompress the ether in preparation for the next event ... (Extracted from introductory part of the paper.).
charged atom ion e charged
First evidence of charged particle tracks in a bubble chamber.