Mandelstam, S.; Determination of the Pion-Nucleon Scattering Amplitude from Dispersion Relations and Unitarity. General Theory
Phys. Rev. 112 (1958) 1344;

Abstracts
A method is proposed for using relativistic dispersion relations, together with unitarity, to determine the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude. The usual dispersion relations by themselves are not sufficient, and we have to assume a representation which exhibits the analytic properties of the scattering amplitude as a function of the energy and the momentum transfer. Unitarity conditions for the two reactions N
N and N 2 will be required, and they will be approximated by neglecting states with more than two particles. The method makes use of an iteration procedure analogous to that used by Chew and Low for the corresponding problem in the static theory. One has to introduce two coupling constants; the pion-pion coupling constant can be found by fitting the sum of the threshold scattering lengths
with experiment. It is hoped that this method avoids some of the formal difficulties of the Tamm-Dancoff and Bethe-Salpeter methods and, in particular, the existence of ghost states. The assumptions introduced are justified in perturbation theory. As an incidental result, we find the precise limits of the region for which the absorptive part of the scattering amplitude is an analytic function of the momentum transfer, and hence the boundaries of the region in which the partial-wave expansion
is valid.

Related references See also G. F. Chew, M. L. Goldberger, F. E. Low, and Y. Nambu, Phys. Rev. 106 (1957) 1345;
G. F. Chew, R. Karplus, S. Gasiorowicz, and F. Zachariazen, Phys. Rev. 110 (1958) 265;
M. Gell-Mann, Proc. of the Sixth Ann. Rochester Conf. High Energy Physics, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, Sec. III, (1956) 30;
K. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. 105 (1957) 320;
G. Salzman and F. Salzman, Phys. Rev. 108 (1957) 1619;
L. Castillejo, R. H. Dalitz, and F. J. Dyson, Phys. Rev. 101 (1956) 453;
G. F. Chew and F. E. Low, Phys. Rev. 101 (1956) 1570;

Record comments
Dispersion relation in two variables: the Mandelstam representation.